This LibGuide is to help you use the Modern Language Association (MLA) style guide, which is frequently used for the humanities including English, history, philosophy, music, and the fine arts.
This guide can help you with the more fundamental tasks including:
1. Works Cited Formats - examples and explanations for citing your sources in the various formats for your Works Cited list
2. Formatting Your Paper - how to set up your paper including the margins, font, and your Works Cited list as well as view a sample paper
3. In-text citations - also known as parenthetical notation - how to cite your references in the text of your paper
4. EndNote - bibliographic citation software, which can help format your citations and is freely available for download to CSS faculty, staff, and students
5. Avoiding Plagiarism - information on the College's academic honesty policy and Turnitin, an online tool to detect where sources need to be cited
Note: This guide is in no way a replacement for the actual handbook, which is over a hundred pages long and can be found in the Library on reserve or at a bookstore near you. Please consult the MLA Handbook 8th edition manual for authoritative information in greater detail. Also feel free to talk with a librarian for more help.
I have tried to ensure that the places of publication and publishers of the latest editions of books are given below, but in order to preserve an idea of publishing chronology, I have also provided details of the original publications. When the publisher remains the same as for the original publication, that publisher's name is not repeated. Similarly, if the place of publication remains the same (though the publisher may differ), that location is not repeated. Where there are intervening publishers between the original and latest editions, they are not cited. Some work dealing with the eighteenth century has been cited where that seems to throw interesting light on developments in the succeeding century.
Acland, Alice. 1948 Caroline barton. London: Constable.
Allen, Reginald. The First Night Gilbert and Sullivan. London: Chappell, revd edn 1976, orig. pub. New York: Limited Editions Club, 1958.
Anon. Century and a Half in Soho: A Short History of the Firm of Novello. London: Novello, 1961-64.
Arundell, Dennis, D. The Story of Sadler's Wells, 1683-1977. Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 2nd extended edn, 1978; orig. pub. London: H. Hamilton. 1965.
Atlas, Allan W. The Wheatstone English Concertina in Victorian England. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.
Austin, William A. Susannah, Jeanie, and the Old Folks at Home: The Songs of Stephen C. Foster from His Time to Ours. New York: Macmillan, 1975.
Bailey, Peter. Leisure and Class in Victorian England: Rational Recreation and the Contest for Control. London: Methuen, 1987; orig. pub. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. 1978.
Bailey, Peter, ed. Music Hall: The Business of Pleasure. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1986.
Bailey, Peter, 'Champagne Charlie: Performance and Ideology in the Music Hall Swell Song', in Bratton, Music Hall: Performance and Style: 49-69.
Bailey, Peter. 'Conspiracies of Meaning: Music Hall and the Knowingness of Popular Culture', Past and Present 144 (1994): 138-70.
Baily, Leslie. The Gilbert and Sullivan Book. London: Spring Books, 1996; orig. pub. London: Cassell. 1952, revd 1956.
Bashford, Christina and Leanne Langley (eds). Music and British Culture, 1785-1914: Essays in Honour of Cyril Ehrlich. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Bayly, Thomas H. Songs of the Affections by Thomas Haynes Bayly. Ed. W. L. Hanchant. London: Desmond Harmsworth, 1932.
Beedell, Ann V. The Decline of the English Musician 1788-1888: A Family of English Musicians in Ireland, England, Mauritius, and Australia. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992.
Best, Geoffrey. Mid-Victorian Britain 1851-75. London: Fontana, 1979; orig. pub. London: Weidenfdd and Nicolson. 1971.
Blake, Andrew. The Land Without Music: Music, Culture and Society in Twentieth-Century Britain. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997. Boon, Brindley. Sing the Happy Song: A History of Salvation Army Vocal Music. London: Salvationist Publishing and Supplies, 1978.
Boosey, William. Fifty Tears of Music. London: Ernest Benn, 1931.
Booth, Charles. Charles Booth's London: A Portrait of the Poor at the Turn of the Century, drawn from his Life and Labour of the People in London, 1885-1905. Selected and ed. Albert Fried and Richard M. Elman. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1971; orig. pub. London: Hutchinson. 1969.
Borrof, Edith. 'An American Parlor at the Turn of the Century', American Music. (1986) 302-8.
Bowers, Jane and Tick, Judith (eds). Women Making Music: The Western Art Tradition, 1150-1950, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1986.
Boydell, Brian. Four Centuries of Music in Ireland. London: BBC Publications, 1979.
Bradley, Ian, ed. The Complete Annotated Gilbert and Sullivan Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996; revd edn, orig. pub. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 1982.
Brahms, Caryl. Gilbert and Sullivan: Lost Chords and Discords. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1975.
Bratton, Jaqueline S. The Victorian Popular Ballad. London: Macmillan, 1975.
Bratton, Jaqueline S., ed. Music Hall: Performance and Style, Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1986.
Burney, Charles. A General History of Music. New York: Dover, 1957; reprint of 1789 edn.
Caldwell, John. The Oxford History of English Music. vol. 2: c.1715 to the Present Day, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999.
Cannadine, David. 'Gilbert and Sullivan: The Making and Un-Making of a British "Tradition"', Roy Porter (ed.), Myths of the English Cambridge: Polity Press: 1992. 12-32.
Carse, Adam. The Life of Jullien: Adventurer, Showman-Conductor and Establisher of the Promenade Concerts in England, Together with a History of those Concerts up to 1895. Cambridge: Heffer, 1951.
Chappell, William. Popular Music of the Olden Time. 2 vols. New York: Dover, 1965; originally pub. London: Cramer, Beale and Chappell, 1859.
Chase, Gilbert. American Music, from the Pilgrims to the Present Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987; revd 3rd edn, originally pub. New: McGraw-Hill. 1966.
Chorley, Henry F. Thirty Tears' Musical collections. New York: Da Capo, 1984; originally pub. London: Hurst and Blackett 1862.
Clinkscale, Martha Novak. Makers of the Piano vol. 1: 1700-1820, vol. 2: 1820-1860, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993 and 1999.
Citron, Marcia J. Gender and the Musical Canon Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Cockrell, Dale, ed. Excelsior: Journals of the Hutchinson Family Singers, 1842-1846. New York: Pendragon Press, 1989.
Colles, Henry and Cruft, John. The Royal College of Music: A Centenary Record, 1883-1983. London: Royal College of Music, 1983.
Coils, Robert and Philip Dodd (eds). Englishness: Politics and Culture 1880-1920. London: Croom Helm, 1986.
Coover, James. Music Publishing, Copyright and Piracy in Victorian England. London: Mansell, 1985.
Coover, James. Music at Auction: Puttick and Smpson (of London), 1794-1971. Warren, Michigan: Harmonic Park Press, 1988.
Corder. Frederick. A History of the Royal Academy of Music from 1822 to 1922. London: F. Corder, 1922.
Cowgill, Rachel. 'The London Apollonicon Recitals 1827-32: A Case-Study in Bach, Mozart and Haydn Reception', Journal of the Royal Musical Association. 123.2 (1998): 190-228.
Cox, Gordon. 'Towards the National Song Book: The History of an Idea', British Journal of Music Education. 9.3 (1992): 239-53.
Cox, Gordon. A History of Music Education in England 1872-1928. Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1993.
Cox, John E., Musical Recollections of the Last Half-Century. London: Tinsley Brothers, 1872.
Dahlhaus, Carl. Nineteenth-Century Music. Trans. J. B. Robinson. Berkeley, LA: University of California Press, 1989.
Day, James. 'Englishness' in Music: From Elizabethan Times to Elgar, Tippett and Britten. London: Thames Publishing, 1999.
Dibdin, Charles, The Professional Life of Mr Dibdin. London: Charles Dibdin, 1803.
Dichter, Harry and Shapiro, Elliott. Handbook of Early American Sheet Music, 1768-1889. New York: Dover, and London: Constable, 1977; orig. pub. as Early American Sheet Music, Its Lure and Its Lore, 1768-9. New York: Bowker, 1941.
Dillard, Philip H. Sir Arthur Sullivan: A Resource Book. London: Scarecrow Press, 1996.
Disher, Maurice W., Victorian Song: From Dive to Drawing Room. London: Phoenix House, 1955.
Donaldson, William, The Highland Pipe and Scottish Society 1750-1950. East Linton: Tuckwell Press, 2000.
Dribble, Jeremy C. Hubert Parry. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Ehrlich, Cyril. The Piano: A History. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990; revd edn, originally pub. London: Dent.
Ehrlich, Cyril. The Music Profession in Britain since the Eighteenth Century: A Social History. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985.
Ehrlich, Cyril. Harmonious Alliance: A History of the Performing Right Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Ehrlich, Cyril. First Philharmonic: A History of the Royal Philharmonic Society. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995.
Ehrlich, Cyril and Dave Russell. 'Victorian Music: A Perspective', Journal of Victorian Culture. 3.1 (1998): 111-22.
Elkin, Robert. Royal Philharmonic: The Annals of the Royal Philharmonic Society. London: Rider, 1946.
Elkin, Robert. The Old Concert Rooms of London. London: Arnold, 1955.
Epstein, Dena J. Music Publishing in Chicago Before 1871: The Firm of Root & Cady 1858-1871. Detroit: Information Coordinators, 1969.
Epstein, DenaJ. Sinful Tunes and Spirituals: Black Folk Music to the Civil War. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977.
Ewen, David, compiler. Popular American Composers from Revolutionary Times to the Present. New York: H. W. Wilson, 1962.
Ewen, David. All the Years of American Popular Music. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.
Farson, Dan. Marie Lloyd and Music Hall. London: Tom Stacey, 1972.
Finson, Ion W. The Voices that are Gone: Themes in 19th-century Popular Song. New York: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Fisher, William A. One Hundred and Fifty Years of Music Publishing in the United States. St. Clair Shores, Mich.: Scholarly Press, 1933; orig. pub. Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1977.
Fiske, Roger. Scotland in Music. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Fiske, Roger. English Theatre Music in the Eighteenth Century. 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986. orig. pub. 1973.
Fitz-Gerald, S. J. Adair. The Story of the Savoy Opera: A Record of Events and Productions. London: Stanley Paul, 1924.
Fleming, Timothy J. 'Awfully Affecting: The Development of a Sentimental Tradition in the Lyrics of British and North American Popular Song.' PhD thesis, University of Strathdyde, 1999.
Fletcher, Tom. 100 Years of the Negro in Show Business, new introduction and index by Thomas L. Riis. New York: Da Capo Press, 1984; orig. pub. Burdge. 1954.
Forsyth, Cecil. Music and rationalism: A Study of English Opera. London: Macmillan, 1911.
Foster, Morrison. Biography, Songs and Musical Compositions of Stephen C. Foster. New York: AMS Press, 1977; orig. pub. Pittsburgh: Smith, 1896.
Fuller, Sophie. 'Unearthing a World of Music: Victorian and Edwardian Women Composers', Women: A Cultural Review 3.1 (1992): 16-22.
Gilbert, Douglas. Lost Chords: The Diverting Story of American Popular Song. New York: Doubleday, 1942.
Gilbert, William Schwenck. The Story of the Mikado. London: Daniel O'Connor, 1921.
Girdham, Jane. English Opera in Late Eighteenth-Century London: Stephen Storace at Drury Lane. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.
Glasstone, Victor. Victorian and Edwardian Theatres: An Architectural and Social Survey. London: Thames and Hudson, 1975.
Golby, John M. (ed.), Culture and Society in Britain 1850-1890: A Source Book of Contemporary Writings. Oxford: Oxford University Press in association with The Open University.
Goldberg, Isaac. Tin Pan Alley: A Chronicle of'American Popular Music. New York: Atlantic, 1961; orig. pub. John Day. 1930.
Gorrell, Lorraine. The Nineteenth-Century Lied. Portland, Or: Amadeus Press, 1993.
Green, Benny, ed. The Last Empires: A Music Hall Companion. London: Pavilion Books, 1986.
Greig, John, ed. The Musical Educator: A Library of Musical Instruction by Eminent Specialists. 5 vols. London: Caxton, 1910.
Halker, C. D. For Democracy, Workers, and God: Labor Song-Poems and Labor Protest, 1865-1895. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991.
Halle, Charles. The Autobiography of Charles Halle with Correspondence and Diaries. Michael Kennedy, ed. London: Paul Eiek, selected from C. E. and Marie Halle, (eds), 1896 The Life and Letters of Sir Charles Halle. London: Smith, Elder.
Hamm, Charles. Yesterdays: Popular Song in America. New York: Norton, 1979.
Hamm, Charles. Music in the New World. New York: Norton, 1983.
Harding, Rosamond E. M. The Piano-forte: Its History Traced to the Great Exhibition of 1851. London: Heckscher, 1989; orig. pub. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1933.
Harker, Dave. Fakesong: The Manufacture of British 'Folksong' 1700 to the Present Day. Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1985.
Milton Haweis, Hugh R. Music and Morals. London: Longmans, Green, 1900; orig. pub. Statham, 1871.
Haweis, Hugh R. My Musical Life. London: Longmans, Green, 1912; orig. pub. Alien, 1884.
Henderson, William, ed. Victorian Street Ballads: A Selection of Popular Ballads Sold in the Street in the Nineteenth Century. London: Country Life, 1937.
Herbert, Trevor, ed. The British Brass Band: A Musical and Social History, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000; revd and expanded edn of Bands: The Brass Band Movement in the 19th and 20th Centuries. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. 1991.
Hogarth, George, ed. The Songs of Charles Dibdin. London: Davidson, 1842.
Hogarth, George, 1862 The Philharmonic Society of London from Its Foundation, 1813, to Its Fiftieth Year, 1862. London: Cocks.
Hoher (now Kift), Dagmar. 1986 'The Composition of Music Hall Audiences 1850-1900', in Bailey, Music Hall: The Business of Pleasure: 73—92.
Holmes, Frederic M., Exeter Hall and Its Associations. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1881.
Hueffer, Francis, Half a Century of Music in England, 1837-1887. London: Chapman and Hall, 1889.
Hughes, Gervase. The Music of Arthur Sullivan. London: Macmillan, 1960.
Humphries, Charles and Smith, William C. Music Publishing in the British Isles. London: Cassell, 1954.
Hurd, Michael. Vincent Novello and Company. London: Granada, 1981.
Hyde, Derek. Newfound Voices: Women in 19th-century English Music. 3rd ed. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998; originally pub. Canterbury: Tritone.
Hyman, Allan. Sullivan and His Satellites: A Survey of English Operettas 1860-1914. London: Chappell, 1978.
Jackson, George P. White and Negro Spirituals. New York: Da Capo Press, 1975; orig. pub. 1943.
Jacobs, Arthur. Arthur Sullivan: A Victorian Musician. 2nd ed. Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1992; originally published Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984.
Johnson, James and Burns, Robert. The Scots Musical Museum 1787-1803. Intro. Donald A. Low. Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1991.
Jones, Gareth Stedman. The 'Cockney' and the Nation, 1780-1988', in Feldman, David and Jones, Gareth Stedman (eds), Metropolis-London: Histories and Representations since 1800. London: Routledge, 1989.
Joyce, Patrick. Visions of the People: Industrial England and the Question of Class, 1848-1914, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Julian, John. A Dictionary of Hymnology. London: Murray, 1907.
Kallaway, Bill. London Philharmonic, Havant: K. Mason, 1972.
Kidson, Frank. British Music Publishers, Printers and Engravers. New York: Blom, 1967; orig. pub. London: Hill. 1900.
Kift, Dagmar. The Victorian Music Hall: Culture, Class and Conflict [no translator given], Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996; orig. pub. as Arbeiterkultur im gesellschaftlichen Konflikt: die englische Music Hall im 19. Jahrhundert. Essen: Klartext Verlag. 1991.
King, A. Hyatt. 'English Pictorial Music Title-Pages, 1820-1885', The Library 5.4 (1949-50 ): 262-72.
Klamkin, Marian. Old Sheet Music. New York: Hawthorn Books, 1975.
Klein, Hermann. Thirty Years of Musical Life in London, 1870-1900. London: Heinemann, 1903.
Koza, Julia E. 'Music and the Feminine Sphere: Images of Women as Musicians in Godey's Lady's Book, 1830-1877', The Musical Quarterly 75.2 (1991): 103-129.
Kramer, Lawrence. Music as Cultural Practice, 1800-1900. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
Lamb, Andrew. 1988 'Music of the Popular Theatre', in Temperley, The Romantic Age: 92-108.
Lawrence, Vera B. Strong on Music: The New York Music Scene in the Days of George Templeton in Strong. 2 vols, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995; vol. 1 orig. pub. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Lee, Edward. Music of the People: A Study of Popular Music in Great Britain. London: Barrie and Jenkins, 1970.
Lee, Edward. Folksong and Music Hall. London: Roudedge and Kegan Paul, 1982.
Leppert, Richard. Music and Image: Domesticity, Ideology and Socio-cultural Formation in Eighteenth-Century England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Leppert, Richard. The Sight of Sound: Music, Representation, and the History of the Body. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
Levine, Lawrence W. Highbrow/Lowbrow: The Emergence of a Cultural Hierarchy in America. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988.
Levy, Lester S. Grace Notes in American History: Popular Sheet Music from 1820-1900. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1967.
Lloyd, Albert Lancaster (1967). Folk Song in England. St Albans: Paladin, 1975, orig. pub. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
Loesser, Arthur. Men, Women, and Pianos: A Social History. New York: Dover, 1990; orig. pub. Simon Schuster, 1954.
Lott, Eric. Love and Theft: Blackface, Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Lubbock, Mark and Ewen, David. The Complete Book of Light Opera. London: Putnam, 1962.
Lunn, Henry C. Musings of a Musician. London: Robert Cocks, 1854; new edn, orig. pub. 1846.
Mabel, Norman. Popular Hymns and Their Writers. Rev. edn. London: Independent Press, 1951; originally pub. 1944.
Macdonnell, J. B. 'Classical Music and British Musical Taste', Macmillan's Magazine 1 (1860): 383-89.
Mackemess, Eric D. Social History of English Music. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1976-74; orig. pub. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1964.
Mackinlay, Sterling. Origin and Development of Light Opera. London: Hutchinson, 1927.
Mair, Carlene. The Chappell Story. London: Chappell, 1961.
Maitland, Sara. Vesta Tilley, London: Virago, 1986.
Marsh, J. B. T. The Story of the Jubilee Singers with Their Songs, with a supplement by F.J. Loudin. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1899; new edn, orig. pub. 1875 based on the book by Pike cited below.
Mayhew, Henry. London Labour and the London Poor. London: Frank Cass, 1967; reprint of enlarged edn of Griffin, Bohn, 1862.
McGuirk, Carol (ed.). Critical Essays on Burns. New York: Hall, 1998.
McVeigh, Simon. Concert Life in London from Mozart to Haydn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
Mellor, Geoffrey J. The Northern Music Hall: A Century of Popular Entertainment. Newcastle upon Tyne: Graham, 1970.
Meyer, Leonard B. Style and Music: Theory, History, and Ideology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Middleton, Richard. 'Popular Music of the Lower Classes', in Temperley, The Romantic Age (1988). 63-91.
Nalbach, Daniel. The King's Theatre, 1704-1867. London: Society for Theatre Research, 1972.
Nathan, Hans. Dan Emmett and the Rise of Early Negro Minstrelsy. 2nd edn. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1977; orig. pub. 1962.
Nettel, Reginald. Music in the Five Towns 1840-1914. London: Oxford University Press, 1944.
Nettel, Reginald. The Orchestra in England: A Social History. London: Cape, 1956; orig. pub. 1946.
Nettel, Reginald. A Social History of Traditional Song. London: Phoenix House, 1969; orig. pub. as Sing a Song of England, 1954.
Nettel, Reginald. Seven Centuries of Popular Song: A Social History of Urban Ditties. London: Phoenix House, 1956.
Newsome, Roy. Brass Roots: A Hundred Tears of Brass Bands and Their Music, 1836-1936. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 1998.
Newsome, Roy. 'The 19th Century Brass Band in Northern England'. PhD thesis, University of Salford, 1999.
Palmer, Roy (ed.). A Touch on the Times: Songs of Social Change 1770-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974.
Palmer, Roy. A Ballad History of England. London: Batsford, 1979.
Palmer, Roy. The Sound of History: Songs and Social Comment. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Parkinson,J. A. Victorian Music Publishers. Michigan: Harmonic Park Press, 1990.
Pearce, Charles E. Sims Reeves. London: Stanley Paul, 1924.
Pearsall, Ronald. Victorian Sheet Music Covers. Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 1972.
Pearsall, Ronald. Victorian Popular Music. Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 1973.
Pendle, Karin. Women and Music: A History. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.
Pickering, Michael. 'White Skin, Black Masks' in Bratton, Music Hall: Performance and Style (1986). 70-91.
Pike, G. D. The Jubilee Singers and Their Campaign for Twenty Thousand Dollars. London: Hodder and Stoughton, orig. pub. Boston, USA: Lee and Shepard, 1874.
Pirie, Peter J. The English Musical Renaissance. London: Gollancz, 1979.
Poole, Robert. Popular Leisure and the Music Hall in Nineteenth-Century Bolton. Lancaster: University of Lancaster, 1982.
Pound, Reginald. Sir Henry Wood. London: Cassell, 1969.
Preston, Katherine K. Music for Hire: A Study of Professional Musicians in Washington, 1877-1900. Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1991.
Rainbow, B. Land Without Music: Music Education in England 1800-1860 and its Continental Antecedents. London: Novello, 1967.
Raynor, Henry. Music and Society Since 1815. London: Barrie and Jenkins, 1976.
Reid, Charles. The Music Monster: A Biography of James William Davison, Music Critic of 'The Times' of London, 1846-78, with Excerpts from His Critical Writings. London: Quartet Books, 1984.
Rice, Charles. Tavern Singing in Early Victorian London: The Diaries of Charles Rice for 1840 and 1850. Laurence Senelick (ed.), London: Society for Theatre Research, 1997.
Rigby, Charles. Sir Charles Halle. Manchester: Dolphin Press, 1952.
Ritchie, James Ewing. The Night Side of London. London: Tinsley, 1869; enlarged edn, orig. pub. William Tweedie, 1857.
Ritter, Fanny R. 'Music, and Woman as a Musician', The Victoria Magazine. 28 (1877): 195-205.
Rosenthal, Harold. Two Centuries of Opera at Covent Garden. London: Putnam, 1958.
Russell, Dave. Popular Music in England, 1840-1914: A Social History. 2nd edn. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997; orig. pub. 1987.
Russell, Henry. Cheer, Boys, Cheer!. London: John Macqueen, 1895.
Rust, Frances. Dance in Society: An Analysis of the Relationship Between the Social Dance and Society in England from the Middle Ages to the Present Day. London: Routledge, 1998; orig. pub. 1969.
Rutland, Harold. Trinity College of Music: The First Hundred Years. London: Trinity College of Music, 1972.
Same, Michael. Music and Culture in America, 1861-1918. Stuyvesant, NY: Pendragon Press, 1998.
Sanjek, Russell. American Popular Music and Its Business. vol. 2: From 1790 to 1909, New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Schmitz, Oskar, A. H., and Th. Without Music. trans. H. Herzl, London: Jarrolds, 1926; orig. pub. as Das Land ohne Musik: Englische Gesellschqftsprobleme. Munich: Georg Miiller Verlag, c. 1905.
Scholes, Percy A. The Mirror of Music, 1844-1944: A Century of Musical Life in Britain as Reflected in the Pages of the 'Musical Times'. 9, 2 vols, London: Novello and Oxford University Press, 1947.
Scott, Derek B. 'Sexuality in Musical Style from Monteverdi to Mae West', in Simon Miller (ed.), The Last Post: Music after Modernism. Manchester: Manchester University Press: 1993; 132-49.
Scott, Derek B., 'The Sexual Politics of Victorian Musical Aesthetics', Journal of the Royal Musical Association 119.1 (1994): 91-114.
Scott, Derek B. (ed.). Music, Culture, and &;. v: A Reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Segrave, Kerry. Payola in the Music Industry: A History, 1880-1991. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1994.
Senelick, Laurence. 'Politics as Entertainment: Victorian Music-Hall Songs', Victorian Studies. 19 (1975-76): 149-80.
Shaw, George Bernard. Shaw's Music. Dan H. Laurence (ed.), vol. 1: 1876-1890, vol. 2: 1890-1893, vol. 3: 1893-1950, London: The Bodley Head, 1981.
Shepherd, John. Tin Pan Alley. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1982.
Simon, Herbert. Songs and Words: A History of the Curwen Press. London: Alien and Unwin, 1973.
Simpson, Harold. A Century of Ballads 1810-1910. London: Mills and Boon, 1910.
Smith, Geoffrey. The Savoy Operas: A New Guide to Gilbert and Sullivan. London: Hale, 1983.
Solie, Ruth A. (ed.), 'Music in Its Social Contexts', special edn of 19th Century Music 16.2 (1992).
Southern, Eileen. The Music of Black Americans: A History. New York: Norton, 1997; 3rd edn, orig.pub. 1971.
Southern, Eileen (ed.). Readings in Black American Music. New York: Norton, 1983; 2nd edn, orig. pub. 1971.
Southworth, James, G. Vauxhall Gardens: A Chapter in the Social History of England. New York: Columbia University Press, 1941.
Spaeth, Sigmund. Read 'Em and Weep. New York: Doubleday Page, 1926.
Spaeth, Sigmund. Weep Some More My Lady. London: Heinemann, 1927.
Spaeth, Sigmund. A History of Popular Music in America. London: Phoenix House, 1960, orig. pub. New York: Random House, 1948.
Spellman, Doreen and Sidney. Victorian Music Covers. London: Evelyn, Adams & Mackay, 1969.
Stedman, Jane W. W. S. Gilbert: A Classic Victorian and His Theatre. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Stevens, Richard J. Recollections of R. J. S. Stevens: An Organist in Georgian London, 1992. Mark Argent (ed.), London: Macmillan.
Stradling, Robert and Meirion Hughes. The English Musical Renaissance 1860-1940: Construction and Deconstruction. London: Routledge, 1993.
Stratton, Stephen, 'Women in Relation to Musical Art', Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association. 9 (1882): 125-31.
Sullivan, Herbert and Rower, Newman. Sir Arthur Sullivan: His Life, Letters and Diaries. London: Cassell, 1950.
Summerfield, Penny, 'Patriotism and Empire: Music-Hall Entertainment, 1870-1914', in John M. Mackenzie (ed.). Imperialism and Popular Culture. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1986.
Sweeney-Tumer, Steve. 'Pagan Airts: Reading Critical Perspectives on the Songs of Burns and Tannahill,' in McGuirk, Critical Essays on Burns (1996): 182-207; orig. pub. in Scotland, vol. 2, no. 2: 36-68.
Sweeney-Tumer, Steve. 'The Political Parlour: Identity and Ideology in C 19th Scottish National Song', in Music and rationalism: Re-evaluations of the History and Ideology of European Musical Culture. Michael Murphy and Harry White (eds), Cork: Cork University Press, 2000.
Taylor, Arthur R. Labour and Love: An Oral History of the Brass Band Movement. London: Elm Tree, 1983.
Tawa, Nicholas. A Music for the Millions: Antebellum Democratic Attitudes and the Birth of American Popular Music. New York: Pendragon Press, 1984.
Tawa, Nicholas. Sweet Songs for Gentle Americans: The Parlor Song in America, 1790-1860. Ohio: Bowling Green University Press, 1985.
Tawa, Nicholas. The Way to Tin Pan Alley: American Popular Song, 1866-1910. New York: Schirmer, 1990.
Temperley, Nicholas. The Music of the English Parish Church. 2 vols, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983; orig. pub. 1979.
Temperley, Nicholas (ed.). The Blackwell History of Music in Britain, vol. 5: Music in Britain: The Romantic Age 1800-1914. Oxford: Blackwell, 1988; orig. pub. London: Athlone Press, 1981.
Temperley, Nicholas (ed. 'Music in Victorian Society and Culture', special edn of Victorian Studies (Autumn 1986).
Temperley, Nicholas. The Lost Chord: Essays in Victorian Music. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989; with cassette recording.
Thompson, Edward P. The Making of the English Working Class. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1991; new edn, orig. pub. London: Gollancz, 1963.
Tick, Judith. American Women Composers Before 1870. 2nd ed. New York: University of Rochester Press, 1995; orig. pub. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1983 from PhD diss., 1979.
Tick, Judith. 'Passed Away Is the Piano Girl: Changes in American Musical Life, 1870-1900', in Bowers and Tick, Women Making Music (1986). 325-48.
Toft, Robert. Heart to Heart: Expressive Singing in England 1780-1830. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Toll, Robert C. Blacking Up: The Minstrel Show in Mneteenth Century America. London: Oxford University Press, 1977; orig. pub. New York (OUP), 1974.
Toll, Robert C. On with the Show: The First Century of Show Business in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.
Traubner, Richard. Operetta: A Theatrical History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990; orig. pub. London: Gollancz, 1984.
Upton, George P. Woman in Music: An Essay. London: Paul and Chicago: McClurg, 1909; orig. pub. Boston: Osgood, 1880.
Van der Merwe, Peter. Origins of the Popular Style: The Antecedents of Twentieth-Century Popular Music, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.
Walker, Ernest. History of Music in England. New York: Da Capo Press, 1978; orig. pub. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1907.
Watson, Ian. Song and Democratic Culture in Britain: An Approach to Popular Culture in Social Movements. London: Croom Helm, 1983.
Weber, William, 'Mass Culture and the Reshaping of European Musical taste, 1770-1870', International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music 8 (1877): 5-21.
Weber, William. Music and the Middle Class: The Social Structure of Concert Life in London, Paris and Vienna Between 1830 and 1848. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1975.
Weber, William. The Rise of Musical Classics in Eighteenth-Century England: A Study in Canon, Ritual, and Ideology. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996; orig. pub. 1992.
Weber, William, 'The Muddle of the Middle Classes', 19th Century Music 3 (1979-80): 175-85.
Whitcomb, Ian. After the Ball: Pop Music from Rag to Rock. New York: Limelight Editions, 1986; orig. pub. London: Alien Lane, 1972.
White, Eric W. A History of English Opera. London: Faber, 1983.
Williams, Raymond. Culture and Society 1780-1950. New York: Columbia University Press, 1983; orig. pub. London: Ghatto and Windus, 1958.
Williams, Raymond. Keywords. London: Fontana, 1990; orig. pub. by both Fontana and Croom Helm. 1976.
Williams, William H. A. 'Twas Only an Irishman's Dream: The Image of Ireland & the Irish in American Popular Song Lyrics, 1800—1920. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1996.
Williamson, Audrey. Gilbert and Sullivan Opera: A New Assessment. Rev. ed. London: Boyars, 1982; orig. pub. Rockliff, 1953.
Winstock, Lewis. Songs and Music of the Redcoats: A History of War Music of the British Army 1642-1902. London: Leo Cooper, 1970.
Wittke, Carl. Tambo and Bones: A History of the American Minstrel Stage. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1968; orig. pub. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1930.
Woll, Alien L. Black Musical Theatre: From Coontown to Dreamgirls. New York: Da Capo Press, 1991; orig. pub. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989.
Wroth, Warwick. The London Pleasure Gardens of the Eighteenth Century. London: Macmillan, 1979; orig. pub. 1886.
Wroth, Warwick. Cremome and the Later London Gardens. London: publisher unknown, 1907.
Wyndham, Henry S. The Annals of Covent Garden Theatre from 1732 to 1897. London: Chatto and Windus, 1906.
Wyndham, Henry S. August Manns and the Saturday Concerts. London: Walter Scott, 1909.
Yeo, Eileen and Stephen, eds. Popular Culture and Class Conflict 1590-1914: Explorations in the History of Labour and Leisure. Brighton: Harvester, 1981.
Young, Kenneth. Music's Great Days in the Spas and Watering-places. London: Macmillan, 1968.
Young, Percy M. The Concert Tradition: From the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century. London: Dobson, 1976; originally published Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1965.
Young, Percy M. Sir Arthur Sullivan. London: Dent, 1971.
Zon, Bennett, ed. Nineteenth-Century British Music Studies. vol. 1. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 1999.
Twentieth-century collections of nineteenth-century British and American popular songs
Bush, Geoffrey and Nicholas Temperley. English Songs 1800-1860, Musica Britannica vol. 43. London: Stainer and Bell, 1979.
Crawford, Richard, ed. The Civil War Songbook. New York: Dover, 1977.
Davison, Peter, ed. Songs of the British Music Hall. New York: Oak Publication, 1971s.
Gammond, Peter, ed. The Good Old Days Songbook. London: EMI Publishing, 1983.
Garrett,John M., ed. Sixty rears of British Music Hall. London: Chappell, 1976.
Graves, Richard, ed. Victorian Christmas Song Book. London: Macmillan, 1980-84.
Hitchcock, H. Wiley, ed. Songs of Henry Clay Work. vol. 19 of Earlier American Music New York: Da Capo Press, 1974.
Jackson, Richard, ed. Stephen Foster Song Book. New York: Dover Publications, 1974.
Jackson, Richard, ed. Popular Songs of Mneteenth-Century America. New York: Dover Publications, 1976.
Turner, Michael R. and Miall, Antony (eds). The Parlour Song Book: A Casquet of Vocal Gems. London: Pan, 1974; orig. pub. Michael Joseph. 1972.
Turner, Michael R. and Antony Miall (eds). 1975 Just a Song at Twilight: The Second Parlour Song Book. London: Michael Joseph.
Waites, Aline and Hunter, Robin. The Illustrated Victorian Songbook. London: Michael Joseph, 1984.
Wallace, lan, compiler. The EMI Book of Parlour Songs. London: EMI Publishing, 1981.
British and American periodicals covered by Répertoire International de la Presse Musicale (RIPM)
Full-text 35mm microfilm and RIPM hardbound indexes to each tide available from UMI (http://www.umi.com).
The Musical Gazette (1856-59) and The Lute (1883-99) are included m British Periodicals in the Creative Arts (UMI Microfilm Collection).
Databases and the Internet
[Offsite links open in a new window.]
Concert Use in Nineteenth- Century London Database Project (Simon McVeigh, Christine Bashford, and Rachel Cowgill), an inter-university project linking Goldsmiths College, London with Oxford Brookes University and the University of Huddersfield. For information on its methodology and rationale, see Christina Bashford, 'Introducing the Concert Life in 19th-century London Database', Brio 36.2: (1999) 111-16. The website: http://www.brookes.ac.uk/schools/apm/music/19thc_m.htm
Gilbert and Sullivan Archive (Boise State University, Idaho): http://diamond.boisestate.edu/gas
Public Domain Music (Benjamin Tubb), a site containing songs (with sound files) by 19th-century popular composers. The website: http://www.pdmusic.org
Women Song Composers: A Listing of Songs Published in the United States and England, c. 1890—1930 (compiled by Christopher Reynolds, Department of Music, University of California, Davis); a searchable database containing 5116 songs (and song sets and cycles) by 515 women composers active in North America and England. The information in the bibliography includes tide, composer, poet, publisher, date and city of publication, and (for some of the songs) also serial number. The database can be accessed at: http://musdra.ucdavis.edu/faculty/reynolds/Women_songs_home.html
Catalogues, Dictionaries, and Indexes
Brown, James D. and Stephen S. Stratton. British Musical Biography. Birmingham: Stratton, 1897
Catalogue of Printed Music in the British Library to 1980. 62 vols. London: Saur, 1981-87.
Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford: Oxford University Press, new edn forthcoming, 1921-22.
Ebel, Otto. Women Composers: A Bio bibliographical Handbook of Woman's Work in Music Brooklyn. NY: Chandler, 1902.
Fuld, James J. The Book of World Famous Music, Classical, Popular and Folk. 4th ed. New York: Dover, 1995; orig. pub. Crown. 1966.
Fuller, Sophie. The Pandora Guide to Women Composers: Britain and the United States 1629-Present. London: Pandora, 1995.
Gänzl, Kurt. The British Musical Theatre. 2 vols. vol. 1: 1865-1914, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1986.
Hixon, Donald L. and Don A. Hennessee. Women in Music: An Encyclopedic Bio-bibliography. 2nd ed. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1993; orig. pub. 1975.
Humphries, Charles and William C. Smith, Music Publishing in the British Isles from the EarliestTimes to the Middle of the 19th Century: A Dictionary of Engravers, Printers, Publishers and MusicSellers. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 1970; orig. pub. London: Cassell. 1954.
Kilgarriff, Michael. Sing Us One of the Old Songs: A Guide to Popular Song 1860-1920. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Larkin, Colin (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 8 vols. London: MUZE, orig. pub. Enfield: Guinness, 1992, in 4 vols.
Matthews, Betty, compiler. The Royal Society of Musicians of Great Britain List of Members, 1738-1984. London: Royal Society of Musicians, 1985. [Includes members of the Royal Society of Female Musicians, 1840-66.]
The Music Catalog. Washington: Library of Congress; 100 microfiches held at Bodleian Library, Oxford, 1991.
Poladian, Sirvart. Sir Arthur Sullivan: An Index to the Texts of His Vocal Works. Detroit Studies in Music Bibliography No. 2 Detroit: Information Services. 1961.
Redway, Virginia L. Musical Directory of Early New York City. New York: New York Public Library, 1941.
Sadie, Julie Anne and Rhian Samuel, eds. The New Grove Dictionary of Women Composers. London: Macmillan, 1994.
Sadie, Stanley, ed. 1980 The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, London, §IV-§X ; (London: Macmillan): 158-217. [Opera, Pleasure Gardens, Concert Life, Education, Music Publishing, Instrument Making, and Libraries.]
Sampson, Henry T. Blacks in Blackface: A Source Book on Early Black Musical Shows. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1980.
Sears, Minnie E. Song Index. 2 vols. New York: Wilson, 1926-34.
Senelick, Laurence, David F. Cheshire, and Ulrich Schneider. British Music Hall 1840-1923. A Bibliography and Guide to Sources, with a Supplement on European Music-Hall, Hamden, CT: Archon, 1981.
Southern, Eileen. Biographical Dictionary of Afro-American and African Musicians. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982.
Stem, Susan. Women Composers: A Handbook, Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1978.
Wagstaff, John, ed. British Union Catalogue of Music Periodicals. 2nd ed. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 1998.
The Wellesley Index to Victorian Periodicals 1824-1900. 4 vols. London: Routledge, 1979-87.
Last modified 29 June 2012