• Home   /  
  • Archive by category "1"

Negotiation Exercises Case Study

        1   EMPL  3270  Tutorial  Summary   Week  2:  TechnoGen  versus  the  United  Nations   • • • • • Situation:     → This  new  substance  can  only  be  found  in  the  Pakistani  Prune,  which  grows  on  trees  in  certain  parts  of  Pakistan.   The  trees  are  in  a  deserted  and  remote  part  of  the  country,  making  them  highly  inaccessible  for  easy   harvesting.  There  seems  to  be  some  combination  of  the  trees  themselves  and  the  quality  of  the  agricultural   and  weather  conditions  that  only  allow  the  trees  to  thrive  in  this  area.     → The  output  from  the  entire  harvest  of  Pakistani  Prunes  is  being  controlled  by  the  Ministry  of  Agriculture,  which   will  sell  the  batch  to  the  highest  bidder.     Dr  Sanchez:  a  research  scientist  employed  by  the  United  Nations  Standing  Committee  on  World  Hunger   → Part  needed:  It  has  been  estimated  that  the  powder  from  the  pits  of  an  entire  harvest  would  be  sufficient  to   produce  enough  soil  additive  to  reclaim  land  that  would  support  a  population  of  20,000  people.   → Intention  of  use:  Preliminary  studies  around  the  world  indicate  that  the  use  of  this  substance  in  drought  areas   would  effectively  allow  currently  fallow  and  drought-­‐parched  land  in  that  area  to  grow  crops.     → Finances:  You  have  been  authorized  by  the  United  Nations  Committee  to  spend  up  to  $  2  million  to  obtain  the   prunes.   Dr  Kim  Wilson:  You  are  Dr.  Kim  Wilson  of  TechnoGen  of  San  Jose,  California.  Your  firm  is  a  world  leader  in  the   development  of  genetic  engineering  processes,  biomedical  technology  and  the  creation  of  "new"  products  for  the   agricultural  and  health  sciences.   → Part  needed:  This  pulp  "mash"  is  then  bio-­‐chemically  treated  and  subject  to  several  genetic  engineering   processes.  It  has  been  estimated  that  the  mash  extract  of  an  entire  harvest  would  be  sufficient  to  produce   enough  compound  to  treat  more  than  20,000  high-­‐cholesterol-­‐risk  people.   → Intention  of  use:  people  could  take  the  product  and  significantly  reduce  their  blood  cholesterol  levels  AND   cholesterol  buildup  in  their  bodies  simply  by  diet  alone,  and  without  any  change  in  their  current  exercise   program.   → Finances:  You  have  been  authorized  by  TechnoGen  to  spend  up  to  $5  million  to  obtain  the  prunes.   Time  Pressure:  Both  teams  are  at  least  5  years  away  from  solving  the  problem  of  how  to  create  the  conditions  to  grow   fruit-­‐  bearing  trees  in  other  parts  of  the  world,  and  at  least  10  years  away  from  being  able  to  create  a  synthetic  powder   in  the  laboratory.  Trees  must  have  a  dormant  year  in  between  the  years  they  produce  fruit.   Trying  to  convince  one  another  why  they  deserve  the  prune  contract   Findings   • Very  positional  to  start  off-­‐  arguing  over  the  issues  rather  then  seeing  potential  to  generate  novel  solutions   → Emphasis  on  Technogen  using  the  product  to  assist  people  with  cholesterol  levels  that  could  be  resolved   through  other  means  (self  inflicted  disease)  ,  whilst  United  nations  would  use  the  product  to  resolve  world   hunger  through  crop  growth     → Statements  were  issue  rather  then  problem  oriented.   • Reciprocity-­‐  both  were  very  competitive,  cautious  in  revealing  information  to  the  other   → Both  opened  with  an  initially  low  offer  well  below  their  budgets   • Once  information  sharing  became  more  flowing  (through  drip  feeding  information)  became  know  that  different  parts   of  the  fruit  were  needed   • Generated  a  novel  solution  through  shifting  toward  a  more  cooperative  interest  based  approach   • Perception  of  one  another  influenced  expectations  of  how  the  negotiation  script  would  unfold-­‐  one  of  the  strategy   factors  is  expectations  of  the  others  strategy,  which  both  believed  would  be  to  contend   → “As  a  world  government  organization,  they  probably  have  a  lot  of  money  to  throw  around  if  they  want  to!”   → “You  know  that  Dr.  Wilson's  company  is  one  of  the  biggest  biotech  firms  in  the  U.S.-­‐-­‐you  heard  that  Wall   Street  sent  the  stock  soaring  about  two  years  ago.  As  a  result,  Kim  Wilson  probably  has  a  lot  of  money  to   throw  around.”   • Technogen  had  more  power  in  that  they  had  a  higher  allocated  budget,  however  they  did  not  know  the  budget  of  the   other  party  unless  this  information  was  shared  by  them-­‐  highlights  the  importance  in  not  being  overgenerous  in   information  sharing.                 2                                                             3   Week  3:  Petrol  Price  Negotiation   • • • • • • There  are  only  two  petrol  stations  in  town,  yours  and  another  one  at  the  other  end  of  town   Most  of  your  customers,  however,  are  not  so  loyal.  They  pay  pretty  close  attention  to  petrol  prices  and  always  go  to  the   station  that  is  selling  petrol  for  less   Both  Franchisees  so  they  can’t  change  the  price  at  which  petrol  is  bought.  Both  must  give  7  days  notice  to  the   Department  of  Fair  Trading  for  a  price  change  hence  can’t  change  prices  quickly.   This  therefore  means  that  you  and  the  other  station  are  stuck  with  a  price  for  at  least  a  week   If  one  station  is  selling  petrol  for  a  lower  price  than  the  other  during  that  week,  it  gets  a  lot  more  business.  The  owner   of  the  higher-­‐priced  station  would  then  dearly  love  to  reduce  the  price  but  cannot  do  so  for  a  week.  If  both  stations  are   selling  at  the  same  price  customers  return  to  making  a  fifty-­‐fifty  choice  between  the  two  stations.     The  first  number  in  each  pair  refers  to  the  profits  that  you  would  receive,  the  second  (in  italics)  indicates  the  profits   that  the  other  station  would  receive.   Findings   • My  team  member  took  a  very   competitive  distributive  approach   initially  charging  the  cut  price  for   three  rounds-­‐  he  was  forcing  a  contend  issue  choice  strategy  staying  firm  on  the  issue   • Whilst  I  attempted  to  indicate  flexibility  and  a  cooperative  integrative  approach  through  charging  the  full  price-­‐  his   contending  meant  I  was  conceding,  whilst  my  intention  was  collaboration  and  a  clear  cut  compromise   • I  adopted  a  tit-­‐for-­‐tat  strategy,  and  became  reciprocal  in  my  actions-­‐  in  the  double  profit  round  I  cut  my  prices  to  signal   that  I  too  could  contend  and  show  firmness   • Adopted  the  strategy  of  the  4  F’s:  friendly,  firm,  forgiving  and  facilitating   • He  then  proceeded  to  raise  prices  for  three  rounds  whilst  I  held  firm  on  the  cut  price,  then  realizing  his  changed   motivation  to  achieve  demands  to  motivation  to  achieve  agreement,  I  was  forgiving  proceeding  to  charge  full  price,   so  that  we  both  mutually  benefited  from  profits  (a  more  cooperative  approach)     • Prisoners  Dilemma:  both  teams  would  be  mutually  better  of  to  continuously  charge  the  full  price,  however  due  to  lack   of  information  exchange  (which  was  prohibited),  competitive  tendencies  and  lack  of  trust  this  did  not  occur                                                               4   Week  4:  Indicating  cooperation   • • • • • Have  just  dismissed  a  worker  after  proper  warning  for  misconduct  (absenteeism  and  failure  to  attend  a  training  course)   after  5  years  service   Union  official  adamant  that  the  dismissal  will  not  stand,  Management  was  adamant  that  it  would-­‐  hit  a  deadlock  [sent   letters  to  one  another  stating  this]   Management  prepared  to  make  the  employee  redundant  rather  then  dismissed  and  pay  them  up  to  3  weeks  pay-­‐   which  was  paid  out  on  a  recent  redundancy   Feel  that  if  you  concede  on  the  dismissal  point  you  may  appear  weak,  and  end  up  with  the  worker  still  in  employment   Union  has  obtained  10  weeks  pay  in  other  circumstances  with  other  companies  (2  weeks  for  each  year  of  service)   Findings   • Both  started  with  a  contending  issue  strategy  standing  firm  on  their  arguments  and  being  unwilling  to  compromise   • Some  negotiations  within  class  moved  toward  a  creative  compromise  which  involved  collaborating  and  problem  solving   to  come  up  with  a  novel  solution  (some  suggested  swaying  more  toward  the  managements  redundancy  offer  of  3   weeks,  but  offering  a  written  reference  for  the  employee-­‐  questionable  in  terms  of  ethics  however)   • Linking  concessions:  since  you  reduced  their  demand  on  the  amount  of  redundancy  pay,  we  are  willing  to  pay  a  lump   sum  payment  of  $500  to  assist  with  job  relocation.   • Making  narrow  concessions  give  the  perception  that  you  are  close  to  your  resistance  point-­‐  did  this  earlier  on  to  give   this  perception  and  close  the  negotiation  in  my  favour                                                                                       5   Week  5:  The  BestBooks  Negotiation   The  nation's  greatest  best-­‐selling  author,  Paige  Turner,  is  looking  to  change  publishers  and  is  entertaining  the  idea  of   signing  a  contract  with  Bestbooks. • Paige’s  Agent: → Signing  bonuses  are  so  common  you  shouldn’t  have  to  negotiate  for  them  (in  fact,  Paige  has  already  decided   how  to  spend  this  money  -­‐-­‐  that  is  why  the  advance  is  also  important → Basically,  Paige  wants  to  only  write  2  books  for  Bestbooks  in  order  to  have  the  freedom  to  leverage  publishers   against  each  other  in  the  future. → Paige  finds  book  promotion  to  be  a  boring,  redundant  task  -­‐-­‐-­‐  good  books  do  not  need  promotion,  and  Paige  is   a  great  writer! • Best  Books: → Recently  authors  have  started  to  act  like  sports  stars  and  have  been  trying  to  leverage  publishers  against  each   other  by  changing  publishers  frequently.  Bestbooks  has  resigned  itself  to  this  trend  and  would  rather  sign  new,   high  profile  writers  than  try  to  sign  writers  to  several  books  (of  course  in  the  unlikely  event  that  you  could  sign   Paige  to  more,  that  is  fine)-­‐  indicates  an  area  of  potential  flexibility  and  concession  making → To  not  give  a  signing  bonus  would  be  an  insult  (as  the  signing  bonus  is  standard  practice  in  the  industry),  so   you  prefer  to  resist  an  advance  [don’t  want  to  give  both] → Finally,  the  strictly  monetary  issues  (royalties,  signing  bonus)  come  straight  from  company  profits  and  with  the   increased  competitiveness  in  the  publishing  business  you  need  to  be  as  stingy  as  you  can-­‐  suggests  pressure  to   pursue  a  contending  strategy  on  these  issues Factors  in  order  of  importance  for  Paige’s  Agent   1. High  Royalty  fee           6000   2. High  advance  payment  for  next  new  books     6000   3. High  contract  signing  bonus       5000   4. High  number  of  countries  to  distribute     4000   5. High  number  of  print  runs         3500   6. Low  number  of  books         3000   7. High  time  frame  for  writing  each  book     3000   8. Low  number  of  promotions  weeks  of  the  book   500   Factors  in  order  of  importance  for  Best  Books   1. Low  royalties  feed         6000   2. High  number  of  countries  for  distribution     6000   3. Low  contract  signing  bonus         5000   4. Low  Advance  for  next  new  books       4000   5. High  number  of  print  runs  for  the  book     3500   6. High  number  of  weeks  on  promotion     3000   7. Low  time  frame  for  writing  each  book     3000   8. High  number  of  books         600   • Findings   • “Signing  bonuses  are  so  common  you  shouldn’t  have  to  negotiate  for  them  (in  fact,  Paige  has  already  decided  how  to   spend  this  money  -­‐-­‐  that  is  why  the  advance  is  also  important)”-­‐  the  desires  of  audiences  to  the  negotiation  or   constituencies  can  add  an  additional  layer  of  pressure. • “It  is  imperative  that  you  negotiate  a  good  deal  for  Bestbooks;  the  last  senior  representative  was  released  for  being  too   generous  when  signing  on  new  authors.”  Influence  of  constituencies • In  the  differentiation  phase  of  understanding  one  another  took  an  integrative  approach  in  attempting  to  understand   the  underlying  issues  motivating  each  party  by  going  through  the  points  and  stating  our  position  on  them  (if  higher  or   lower  were  preferred  and  why)   • Identified  areas  of  common  interest  in  which  both  parties  had  the  same  opinion  (e.g.  both  wanted  a  high  number  of   countries  to  distribute  the  book  and  a  high  number  of  print  runs)-­‐  took  an  integrative  approach  to  discover  this  and   created  a  mutually  beneficial  solution  on  this  point   • Tried  to  avoid  getting  stuck  in  a  competitive  orientation  of  disputing  each  issue  on  a  point-­‐by-­‐point  basis  and  tried  to   negotiate  fluidly,  parking  issues,  and  tying  together  packages  of  offers   • Linking  concessions  were  used:    Best  Books  stated  “Since  you  have  reduced  your  demand  on  the  royalties  fee,  I  am   willing  to  concede  on  the  advance  and  raise  that”  (Best  books  raised  the  advanced  payment  as  it  was  of  less  importance   to  them  (4000)  then  the  royalties  fee  (6000)   • Packaging  concessions  were  used,  Paige’s  agent  stated  “If  you  will  decrease  the  number  of  books  required  [low   importance  to  Best  books],  I  will  increase  the  weeks  for  promotion  [something  of  high  importance  to  Best  Books  and   low  priority  to  Paige]”   • Need  to  consider  the  implementation  of  the  agreement  and  the  future  of  the  parties  relationship-­‐  will  have  an  ongoing   agreement,  thus  can’t  be  completely  value  claiming  and  competitive  ignore  value  creating  and  being  collaborative  as   beneficial  for  the  future  relationship     6                                                                                                                 7   Week  7  and  8:  Eurotechnologies  [approaches  to  negotiation,  constituency  negotiations,   emotions  and  communication]     • • • • • • • • • • Relocating  the  research  and  development  team  from  the  executive  Munich  offices  to  the  more  remote  Wasserburg   facility  where  a  lot  of  the  manufacturing  and  other  R  &  D  team  work   The  road  to  the  facility  is  poor,  the  facility  itself  is  in  a  bad  condition  with  no  air  conditioning  and  a  poor  quality   cafeteria.   ETI  is  known  for  its  high  level  technical  advancements  and  premium  products   Duplication  of  equipment  due  to  the  division  even  to  the  point  of  Wasserburg  employees  contracting  to  work  to   competitors  that  the  R  &  D  department  could  do   Overhead  rate  is  30-­‐40%  higher  then  other  competitors   R  &  D  personnel  proposed  a  20%  salary  cut  which  would  be  a  183,375  euro  reduction   However  6,500,000  euros  was  needed  by  management  to  remain  competitive   Possible  areas  of  concession  to  ease  the  move  for  both  parties:  cafeteria  food  service,  renovation  of  laboratory   facilities,  assistance  in  relocation,  scholarly  interaction,  cash  incentives  to  move   Management  group:  As  the  management  group  for  Eurotechnologies,  Inc.,  you  are  interested  in  saving  the  company   and  you  recognize  that  the  loss  of  the  majority  of  your  Research  and  Development  staff  would  be  a  crippling  blow  to   the  firm.   → Want  to  close  the  Munich  facility  and  move  all  the  employees  over  to  the  Wasserburg  plant  which  they  own-­‐   lease  the  Munich  offices   → You  must  close  the  Munich  facilities  in  their  current  highly  expensive  form;  that  is  an  inevitable  fact. → If  some  other  form  of  a  Munich  facility  is  needed  and  cost  effective,  you  may  consider  such  a  proposal.   → If  moving  everyone  to  Wasserburg  becomes  the  only  viable  plan,  you  are  prepared  to  consider  some  of  the   concessions  that  appear  below.  Cost  savings  are  a  primary  factor,  so  don't  concede  to  do  more  than  is   absolutely  necessary. → Any  solution  that  saves  the  company,  reduces  overhead  significantly,  and  keeps  the  majority  of  key  employees   on  board  are  acceptable  if  your  group  can  agree  to  it. Research  team:  6  who  sent  a  letter  to  the  president   → Decreased  intellectual  simulation  in  the  environment-­‐  have  industry  contacts  in  Munich,  loss  of  competitive   edge-­‐  “essential  to  your  individual  personal  growth  and  to  the  long-­‐run  excellence  of  the  company” → Major  concerns  are  about  relocation  of  families,  changing  of  schools,  loss  of  social  connections   → Want  an  alternative  to  relocation  to  maintain  competitiveness-­‐  “You  are  interested  in  saving  the  company.”   → Will  move  to  Wasserburg  if  it  is  the  only  option,  but  only  if  management  are  accommodating  on  the   aforementioned  areas  for  concessions. Findings:   • The  Munich  employees  consider  themselves  “a  cut  above  the  manufacturing  and  technical  service  employees”  clearly   an  issue  of  imbalance  and  division  between  the  two  groups   • Generate  novel  solutions  such  as  instituting  training  and  team  building  exercises  to  bring  together  the  staff  of  the  two   locations  so  as  to  increase  productivity  through  workplace  satisfaction-­‐  a  different  means.   • The  research  team  had  the  stronger  BATNA  in  that  their  prestige  in  the  industry  meant  they  could  seek  employment   elsewhere  if  their  needs  were  not  met  in  negotiation-­‐  leveraged  this  to  their  effect  creating  a  power  imbalance  “Your   mass  defection  from  the  firm  would  surely  end  its  existence.  “   • The  management  team  had  the  weaker  BATNA  as  if  the  agreement  wasn’t  reached  on  how  to  incorporate  the  R  &  D   staff  into  the  move,  if  they  left  they  would  lose  employees  critical  to  their  differentiating  value  proposition  as  technical   expertise  leaders.   • Separation  within  the  constituency:  suggestion  that  solidarity  is  not  as  firm  as  the  research  team  believes  as  “5.  Some   members  of  the  Research  and  Development  group,  particularly  Pederson  and  Hoffmann,  may  not  really  be  willing  to   leave  the  company”  due  to  potential  for  career  advancement  and  financial  responsibilities.   • Initially  the  opposing  team  employed  the  hard  bargaining  tactic  of  good  cop,  bad  cop     • Pressure  in  that  negotiations  can  set  a  precedent  for  future  workplace  relations  disputes,  and  overall  workplace   morale-­‐  don’t  want  to  favour  one  group  of  employees  over  others  and  further  the  division.   • Emotional  issue  in  that  it  involves  issues  regarding  relocation  of  family  members                   8           9   Week  9  and  10:  Negotiating  a  collective  agreement-­‐  Newton  School  Dispute  [Employment   Relations  negotiations  and  constituency  negotiaitons]   Contract  between  the  Newton  School  District  and  the  Newton  Teachers  Association  has  now  expired   Contract  was  not  able  to  be  finalized  before  the  opening  day  of  school  so  the  Teachers  Association  agreed  not  to  pull  a   strike  for  the  benefit  of  the  community-­‐  and  to  operate  on  a  day-­‐to-­‐day  basis  without  a  contract   • Decrease  in  enrollment  and  income  from  local  taxes  and  state  and  federal  aid  mean  that  cost  have  increased  leading  to   a  3.95%  budgetary  short  if  the  current  agreement  and  it’s  clauses  were  maintained   • Board  wants  a  3  year  contract  to  maintain  stability   • Teachers  association  wants  a  1  year  contract  to  maintain  flexibility   • Already  done:  the  Board  and  the  Association  have  negotiated  an  in-­‐principle  agreement  on  a  salary  increase  of  2%  per   annum   • Board  of  Educations:  reduce  costs  and  avoid  a  strike   Position  ranked  in  order  of  importance:     1. Reduction  in  staff:  wants  to  control  the  process  also  with  authority  on  lay  offs,  however  with  voice  mechanisms  for  the   teachers   2. Work  load:  increase  pupil/teacher  ratio,  longer  work  day,  removal  of  prep  time,  reduction  of  break  by  25  minutes  and   emergency  assignments  and  general  obligations   3. Evaluation  of  teachers  should  be  a  management  activity,  with  the  association  only  providing  advisory  assistance,  wants   content  of  evaluations  to  be  confidential  with  little  information  released  and  unannounced  visitations   4. Benefits:  minimizing  expenditure  on  accumulated  sick  leave,  bereavement  leave,  civic  duty  leave  and  childbirth  leave   • Teacher’s  association:  maintain  benefits  secured  previously     Positions  ranked  in  order  of  importance   1. Evaluation  of  teachers:  want  influence  in  the  design  and  execution  of  these  programs,  access  to  the  content  of   evaluations,  opportunity  to  challenge   2. Reduction  in  staff:  minimal  and  selective  reductions,  using  teachers  to  fill  admin  positions  and  teachers  on  leave  Also,   representation  in  layoff  decisions,  maximization  of  forewarning  to  affected  teachers,  and  a  procedure  permitting   challenge   3. Work  load:  wants  to  keep  ratio  at  32:1  but  willing  to  give  concessions  in  some  classes  to  exchange  concessions  on  other   priority  issues.  The  bargaining  team  is  willing  to  make  such  proposals  in  exchange  for  concessions  on  other  priority   issues.  In  general,  the  teachers  are  willing  to  make  certain  concessions  on  workload,  provided  that  assignments  are  not   made  arbitrarily  by  the  Board  and  that  any  increases  are  kept  to  a  minimum  and  are  distributed  equitably   4. Benefits:  preferences  on  accumulated  sick  leave,  bereavement  leave,  civic  duty  and  childbirth  leave  are  flexibility  and   can  be  tied  to  other  concessions.   • • Findings:     • Additional  pressures  of  audiences  to  negotiation,  such  as  community  pressure  groups  and  the  parents  in  this  case  who   have  been  putting  “pressure  on  both  the  teachers  and  the  board  to  keep  the  schools  operating”  can  engender  a  sense   of  competitiveness   → Both  sides  wish  to  “conclude  an  agreement  to  avert  a  strike”   → This  could  be  a  point  of  commonality  the  two  teams  could  assert  in  the  differentiation  phase   • Came  to  a  clear  cut  compromise  over  the  length  of  the  contract  and  met  in  the  middle  at  2  years   • Teachers  have  a  stronger  BATNA  in  that  they  can  call  a  strike  need  be  if  an  agreement  is  not  reached   → “You  represent  95  percent  of  the  teachers  in  the  Newtown  system.  Information  available  to  you  indicates  that   a  majority  of  the  membership  prefers  to  conclude  an  agreement  but  is  willing,  if  necessary,  to  engage  in  a   strike  action.”   → This  is  a  source  of  power  in  negotiaitons.   • If  a  agreement  was  not  reached  and  the  teachers  were  to  call  a  strike,  this  is  not  a  favourable  BATNA  for  the  board  of   education,  as  further  financial  expenses  would  be  incurred   • Initially  we  were  quite  narrow  minded  and  positional,  working  on  an  isolated  point  to  point  basis   • Despite  proceeding  to  work  in  quite  a  collaborative  negotiation,  there  was  a  lot  of  negotiation  over  the  final  point  of   benefits  including  bereavement  leave  and  civic  duty  leave   → Both  were  of  little  value  to  both  party  but  demonstrated  the  tendency  for  parties  to  want  to  maintain  face  on   the  final  point  of  debate  and  secure  a  concession.   • Negotiation  doesn’t  occur  in  a  vacuum:   → “However,  it  has  certain  demands  that  it  feels  are  justified  and  reasonable  in  light  of  the  increased  cost  of   living  and  recent  gains  received  by  Teachers'  Associations  in  neighboring  communities.”   → “In  light  of  the  fact  that  teachers  in  most  surrounding  communities  receive  payment  for  unused  sick  leave   upon  severance,  the  Newtown  membership  feels  it  too  is  entitled  to  such  benefits.     →   • Differing  order  of  priorities-­‐  would  be  revealed  if  information  sharing  was  encouraged  through  a  interest  based   collaborative  approach  to  negotiation-­‐  where  underlying  interests  and  motivations  between  behaviour  are  revealed     10   • • “Using  teachers  to  fill  administrative  positions  that  are  currently  vacant  and  using  laid-­‐off  teachers  to  fill  vacancies   created  by  teachers  on  both  long  and  short-­‐term  leave.”  –  could  be  a  creative  solution  that  generates  benefit  for  both   parties  through  affording  the  teachers  job  security  and  reducing  hiring  and  recruitment  costs  for  the  board   “The  Board  has  been  informed  privately  that  if  it  cannot  succeed  in  preventing  a  strike  and  finalizing  a  contract  at   minimal  cost,  the  community  may  withdraw  its  support  of  the  Board  and  ask  for  your  resignation.” → Can  lead  to  firmness  at  the  bargaining  table,  not  only  as  a  tactic,  but  also  in  order  to  avoid  loss  of  face  with  the   constituents       11  


Она нахмурилась. - Ты не заметил ничего. Ну, может, дошел какой-нибудь слушок. - Мидж, послушай.  - Он засмеялся.

One thought on “Negotiation Exercises Case Study

Leave a comment

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *