GDs-Example of a Case Study
Example of topic based case study Started in 1985, MangoFruits is a leading seller of seasonal mangos in the Indianchanges in the advertising and branding of market. Since then, it has been under the charge of Mr. Kumar, the founder-owner of the firm. In 1990, the company decided to go for a diversification by expanding the product mango fruit juice product heavily in the line. The new product was mango fruit juice. At the same time, Mr. Sen was appointed the Senior Vice President of marketing in the company. However, soon after its successful diversification into mango fruit juice line, the sales in this segment began to drop steadily. Mr. Sen wanted to introduce some radical the new business but the proposal was turned down by the old-fashioned Mr. Kumar At this juncture in 1994, the firm is losing business and its market share of food producers/sellers is also on a decline Mr. Kumar has asked Mr. Sen to show a turnaround in the company within a year. What steps should Mr. Sen take to take the company out of its troubles?
Facts: Situation Analysis: Mango Fruits is a quality seller of seasonal mangoes in the Indian Food Industry. 1. Established seller in food industry 2. Losing heavily in mango fruit juice. 3. Old fashioned owner's resistance to a . Customer purchases in mangos are new change highly seasonal . The mango fruit juice business was Competition: added to utilize idle capacity during periods of inactivity. This is a low-growth industry (2% annual growth over the last four years) . Low priced competitors . Foreign competitors are gaining market . share Customers: . Large customers are buying based on price and quality. Smaller customers buy solely on price. . High quality product, but low end customers care more about price tharn . There is a Lankan competitor in the quality market who offers low priced mangos of inferior quality
Problem Definition: Mismanaged product diversification in a highly price sensitive market. Alternatives Criteria for evaluation of alternatives: Establishing the firm's quality image. Increase in market share. Increase in sales. Cost of the product. i Alternative 1: Establish an Off-Brand for the mango fruit juice. Alternative 2: Educate the customer about product quality. Alternative 3: Exit the mango fruit juice business. .
Evaluation of Alternatives: Alternative 1 : Alternatives Protect firm's quality image in the food industry Redefine and redesigned product to reduce the cost of manufacture Lower the price to enable it to compete with Lankan seller. . Alternative 1: Establish an Off-Brand for the mango fruit juice. Alternative 2: Educate the customer market about product quality. . Alternative 2 Alternative 3: Exit the mango fruit juice . Make use of the quality leadership in fruit seller market Offer food grade labelled fruit products to promote quality of the company. product line from business. . Alternative 3 .A passive strategy.
Using Case Studies to Teach
Why Use Cases?
Many students are more inductive than deductive reasoners, which means that they learn better from examples than from logical development starting with basic principles. The use of case studies can therefore be a very effective classroom technique.
Case studies are have long been used in business schools, law schools, medical schools and the social sciences, but they can be used in any discipline when instructors want students to explore how what they have learned applies to real world situations. Cases come in many formats, from a simple “What would you do in this situation?” question to a detailed description of a situation with accompanying data to analyze. Whether to use a simple scenario-type case or a complex detailed one depends on your course objectives.
Most case assignments require students to answer an open-ended question or develop a solution to an open-ended problem with multiple potential solutions. Requirements can range from a one-paragraph answer to a fully developed group action plan, proposal or decision.
Common Case Elements
Most “full-blown” cases have these common elements:
- A decision-maker who is grappling with some question or problem that needs to be solved.
- A description of the problem’s context (a law, an industry, a family).
- Supporting data, which can range from data tables to links to URLs, quoted statements or testimony, supporting documents, images, video, or audio.
Case assignments can be done individually or in teams so that the students can brainstorm solutions and share the work load.
The following discussion of this topic incorporates material presented by Robb Dixon of the School of Management and Rob Schadt of the School of Public Health at CEIT workshops. Professor Dixon also provided some written comments that the discussion incorporates.
Advantages to the use of case studies in class
A major advantage of teaching with case studies is that the students are actively engaged in figuring out the principles by abstracting from the examples. This develops their skills in:
- Problem solving
- Analytical tools, quantitative and/or qualitative, depending on the case
- Decision making in complex situations
- Coping with ambiguities
Guidelines for using case studies in class
In the most straightforward application, the presentation of the case study establishes a framework for analysis. It is helpful if the statement of the case provides enough information for the students to figure out solutions and then to identify how to apply those solutions in other similar situations. Instructors may choose to use several cases so that students can identify both the similarities and differences among the cases.
Depending on the course objectives, the instructor may encourage students to follow a systematic approach to their analysis. For example:
- What is the issue?
- What is the goal of the analysis?
- What is the context of the problem?
- What key facts should be considered?
- What alternatives are available to the decision-maker?
- What would you recommend — and why?
An innovative approach to case analysis might be to have students role-play the part of the people involved in the case. This not only actively engages students, but forces them to really understand the perspectives of the case characters. Videos or even field trips showing the venue in which the case is situated can help students to visualize the situation that they need to analyze.
Case studies can be especially effective if they are paired with a reading assignment that introduces or explains a concept or analytical method that applies to the case. The amount of emphasis placed on the use of the reading during the case discussion depends on the complexity of the concept or method. If it is straightforward, the focus of the discussion can be placed on the use of the analytical results. If the method is more complex, the instructor may need to walk students through its application and the interpretation of the results.
Leading the Case Discussion and Evaluating Performance
Decision cases are more interesting than descriptive ones. In order to start the discussion in class, the instructor can start with an easy, noncontroversial question that all the students should be able to answer readily. However, some of the best case discussions start by forcing the students to take a stand. Some instructors will ask a student to do a formal “open” of the case, outlining his or her entire analysis. Others may choose to guide discussion with questions that move students from problem identification to solutions. A skilled instructor steers questions and discussion to keep the class on track and moving at a reasonable pace.
In order to motivate the students to complete the assignment before class as well as to stimulate attentiveness during the class, the instructor should grade the participation—quantity and especially quality—during the discussion of the case. This might be a simple check, check-plus, check-minus or zero. The instructor should involve as many students as possible. In order to engage all the students, the instructor can divide them into groups, give each group several minutes to discuss how to answer a question related to the case, and then ask a randomly selected person in each group to present the group’s answer and reasoning. Random selection can be accomplished through rolling of dice, shuffled index cards, each with one student’s name, a spinning wheel, etc.
Tips on the Penn State U. website: http://tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/cases/
If you are interested in using this technique in a science course, there is a good website on use of case studies in the sciences at the University of Buffalo.
Dunne, D. and Brooks, K. (2004) Teaching with Cases (Halifax, NS: Society for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education), ISBN 0-7703-8924-4 (Can be ordered at http://www.bookstore.uwo.ca/ at a cost of $15.00)