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John Berger Ways Of Seeing Bibliography Examples


Alessandrini, Marjorie, Marc Duveau, Jean-Claude Glasser and Marion Vidal, eds. (1986). L'encyclopédie des bandes dessinés. Paris, Albin Michel.

Appleyard, Donald, Kevin Lynch and John R. Myer (1964). The View from the Road. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.

Ayroles, François (2000). Notes Mésopotamiennes. Paris, L'Association.

Barker, Martin (1989). Comics: Ideology, Power and the Critics. Manchester, Manchester University Press.

Baxandall, Michael (1985). Patterns of Intention: On the Historical Explanation of Pictures. New Haven, Yale University Press.

Bayley, Stephen, ed. (1989). Commerce and Culture: From Pre-Industrial Art to Post-Industrial Value. London, Design Museum/Penshurst Press.

Beaty et al., Bart (1999). "Critical Focus: Understanding Comics." The Comics Journal (211): 57–103.

Beerbohm, Robert L. and Richard D. Olson (1999). "The Golden Age and Beyond: The Origin of the Modern Comic Book." The Overstreet Comic Price Guide. Ed. R. Overstreet. New York, Avon Books. 226-233.

Benjamin, Walter (1969 [1936]). "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction." Illuminations. Ed. H. Arendt. New York, Schocken. 217–251.

Berger, John (1972). Ways of Seeing. New York, Viking Press.

Berger, John (1980). About Looking. New York, Pantheon.

Bilal, Enki, et P. Christin (1977). La ville qui n'existait pas. Paris, Dargaud.

Bindman, David (1981). Hogarth. London, Thames & Hudson.

Blanchard, Gérard (1969). La bande dessinée: histoire des histoires en images de la préhistoire à nos jours. Verviers (Belgium), Editions Gérard.

Bosselmann, Peter (1998). Representation of Places: Reality and Realism in City Design. Berkeley, University of California Press.

Bramly, Serge (1996). Mona Lisa. London, Thames and Hudson.

Breccia, Alberto and Héctor Germán Osterheld (1997). Mort Cinder. Buenos Aires, Colihue.

Busscher, Jean-Marie de, ed. (1985). Attention travaux! Architectures de bande dessinée. Paris, (A suivre).

Camille, Michael (1992). Image on the Edge: The Margins of Medieval Art. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.

Campbell, Eddie (2000). "Ouch!" Bacchus (51): 1–4.

Canemaker, John (1987). Winsor McKay: His Life and Art. New York, Abbeville Press.

Carrier, David (2000). The Aesthetics of Comics. University Park, Pennsylvania State University Press.

Caza, Philippe (1982). Scènes de la vie de banlieue. Paris, Dargaud.

CCI (1984). Images et imaginaires d'architecture. Paris, Centre Georges Pompidou.

Clark, Kenneth (1990). 100 Details from Pictures in the National Gallery. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.

Couperie, Pierre and Maurice C. Horn (1968). A History of the Comic Strip. New York, Crown.

Crumb, Robert (1967). Zap Comix, No. 0.

Crumb, Robert (1995). R. Crumb's America. San Francisco, Last Gasp.

Daniels, Les (1971). Comix: A History of Comic Books in America. New York, Outerbridge & Dienstfry.

Eisner, Will (1985). Comics and Sequential Art. Tamarac, FL, Poorhouse Press.

Eisner, Will (1995). Graphic Storytelling. Tamarac, FL, Poorhouse Press.

Elkins, James (1998). On Pictures and the Words That Fail Them. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Elkins, James (1999). The Domain of Images. Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press.

Farrell, Terry (1984). Terry Farrell. London, Academy Editions.

Feiffer, Jules (1997). "The Great Comic Book Heroes." The Comics Journal (200): 181-205.

Forester, John, ed. (1985). Critical theory and public life. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.

Fresnault-Deruelle, Pierre (1976). "Du linéaire au tabulaire." Communications (24): 7-23.

Gaiman, Neil, Matt Wagner, Teddy Kristiansen and Todd Klein (1999). "Sandman Midnight Theatre." Neil Gaiman's Midnight Days. Ed. N. Gaiman. London, Titan Books.

Gaumer, Patrick and Claude Moliterni (1997). Dictionnaire mondial de la bande dessinée. Paris, Larousse.

Gordon, Ian (1998). Comic Strips and Consumer Culture, 1890–1945. Washington DC, Smithsonian Institution Press.

Gowans, Alan (1971). The Unchanging Arts: New Forms for the Traditional Functions of Art in Society. Philadephia, Lippincott.

Gowans, Alan (1983). Learning to See: Historical Perspectives on Modern Popular/Commercial Arts. Bowling Green, OH, Popular Press.

Gowans, Alan (1991). "The Case for Kitsch: Popular/Commercial Arts as a Reservoir of Traditional Culture and Humane Values." Living in a Material World. Ed. G. L. Pocius. St. John's, Nfld., Institute of Social and Economic Research, Memorial University. 127-143.

Groensteen, Thierry (1991). "Les lieux superposés de Richard McGuire." Lectures de bandes dessinées. Ed. Y. Lacroix. Rimouski, Québec, Urgences. 95-109.

Groensteen, Thierry (1997). "Un premier bouquet de contraintes." OuPus 1 / OuBaPo (Ouvroir de Bande Dessiné Potentielle). Paris, L'Association. 13–59.

Harvey, Robert C. (1995). "Scott McCloud (interview)." The Comics Journal (179): 52–81.

Harvey, Robert C. (1996). The Art of the Comic Book: An Aesthetic History. Jackson, University of Mississippi Press.

Herdeg, Walter and David Pascal, eds. (1972). The Art of the Comic Strip. Zürich, Graphis.

Herdling, Glenn A. (1996). "Comics." A Dctionary of Cultural and Critical Theory. Ed. M. Payne. Oxford, Blackwell. 110–112.

Hogben, Lancelot (1949). From Cave Painting to Comic Strip: A History of Human Communications. New York, Chanticleer Press.

Hollander, Anne (1991). Moving Pictures. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.

IFA (1985). Architectures de bande dessinée. Paris, Institut français d'architecture.

Inge, M. Thomas (1990). Comics as Culture. Jackson, University of Mississippi Press.

Iser, Wolfgang (1978). The Act of Reading: A Theory of Aesthetic Response. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press.

Katchor, Ben (1996). Julius Knipl, Real Estate Photographer. Boston, Little, Brown.

Killoffer (1997). "Bande dessinée en Tripoutre." OuPus 1 / OuBaPo (Ouvroir de Bande Dessiné Potentielle). Paris, L'Association. 66–67.

Koestler, Arthur (1970). The Act of Creation. London, Pan Books.

Kunzle, David (1973). The Early Comic Strip. Berkeley, University of Califormia Press.

Kunzle, David (1990). The Nineteenth Century. Berkeley, University of Califormia Press.

Lacroix, Yves, ed. (1991). Lectures de bandes dessinées. Urgences. Rimouski, Québec, Urgences.

LaRocca, Donald J. (1998). The Academy of the Sword: Illustrated Fencing Books 1500–1800. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Lécroart, Étienne and Jean-Christophe Menu (1997). "Le 'Tireur à la ligne', ou Grabuge galactique." OuPus 1 / OuBaPo (Ouvroir de Bande Dessiné Potentielle). Paris, L'Association. 68–100.

Lent, John A. (1994). Comic Art of Europe: An International, Comprehensive Bibliography. Westport, CT, Greenwood Press.

Magritte, René (1979). Écrits complets. Paris, Flammarion.

Mann, Ron (1994). Comic Book Confidential. New York, Voyager.

Massin (1973). La lettre et l'image: la figuration dans l'alphabet latin du huitième siècle à nos jours. Paris, Gallimard.

McCay, Winsor (1969). Little Nemo. Paris, Pierre Horay.

McCay, Winsor (1990). The Complete Little Nemo in Slumberland. Seattle, Fantagraphics Books.

McCloud, Scott (1993). Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art. Northampton, MA, Tundra.

McCloud, Scott (2000). Reinventing Comics. New York, Paradox Press.

McDonnell, Patrick, Karen O'Connell, and Georgia Riley de Havenon (1986). Krazy Kat: The comic art of George Herriman. New York, Abrams.

Meuris, Jacques (1990). René Magritte. Woodstock,NY, Overlook Press.

Mijksenaar, Paul and Piet Westendorp (1999). Open Here: The Art of Instructional Design. New York, Joost Elfers Books.

Moebius (1984). Le bandard fou. Paris, Les Humanoïdes Associés.

Moliterni, Claude, Philippe Mellot and Michel Denni (1996). Les aventures de la BD. Paris, Gallimard.

Moore, Alan and Dave Gibbons (1987). Watchmen. New York, Warner Books.

Neumann, Dietrich, ed. (1996). Film Architecture: Set Designs from Metroplis to Blade Runner. Munich, Prestel.

Overstreet, Robert, ed. (1999). The Overstreet Comic Price Guide. New York, Avon Books.

Peeters, Benoît (1993). La bande dessinée: un exposé pour comprendre, un essai pour réfléchir. Paris, Flammarion.

Peeters, Benoît, Jacques Faton and Philippe de Pierpont (1992). Storyboard -- le cinéma dessiné. Crisnee, Belgium, Editions Yellow Now.

Phillips, Patrick (1999). "The Film Spectator." An Introduction to Film Studies. Ed. J. Nelmes. London, Routledge. Second edition. 129–160.

Prown, Jules David (1988). "Mind in Matter: An Introduction to Material Culture Theory and Method." Material Life in America. Ed. R. B. S. George. Boston, Northeastern University Press. 17–37.

Queneau, Raymond (1981). Exercises in Style. New York, New Directions. (translation of Exercices de style. Paris: Gallimard, 1947)

Richardson, John Adkins (1986). Art: The Way It Is. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall.

Rio, Michel (1976). "Cadre, plan, lecture." Communications (24): 94-107.

Robbins, Trina (1999). From Girls to Grrrlz: A History of Women's Comics from Teens to Zines. San Francisco, Chronicle Books.

Rothschild, D. Aviva (1995). Graphic Novels: A Bibliographic Guide to Book-Length Comics. Englewood, CO, Libraries Unlimited.

Rowe, Allan (1999). "Film Form and Narrative." An Introduction to Film Studies. Ed. J. Nelmes. London, Routledge. Second edition, ed. 91–128.

Sabin, Roger (1993). Adult Comics: An Introduction. London, Routledge.

Sabin, Roger (1996). Comics, Comix & Graphic Novels. London, Phaidon.

Saenz, Michael, and Peter B. Gillis (1985). Shatter (subtitled, "the first computerized comic"). Chicago, First Comics.

Saint-Gelais, Richard (1991). "Entre les cases (quelques effets fictionnels des interstices en bande dessiné)." Lectures de bandes dessinées. Ed. Y. Lacroix. Rimouski, Québec, Urgences. 7-17.

Sauter, Catherine and Philippe Sohet (1991). "«Histoire de voir»: historicité et logique narrative dans l'œuvre de Jacques Martin." Lectures de bandes dessinées. Ed. Y. Lacroix. Rimouski, Québec, Urgences. 30-43.

Schodt, Frederik L. (1983). Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics. Tokyo, Kodansha International.

Schuiten, François and Benoît Peeters (1982). Les murailles de Samaris. Tournai, Casterman.

Schuiten, François and Benoît Peeters (1996). Le guide des cités. Tournai, Casterman.

Schuiten, François, et Benoit Peeters (1985). "Utopies". À suivre, 1985: 66-70.

Spaulding, Amy E. (1995). The Page as a Stage Set: Storyboard Picture Books. Metuchen, NJ, The Scarecrow Press.

Spiegelman, Art (1986). Maus: A Survivor's Tale. New York, Pantheon.

Spiegelman, Art (1991). Maus: A Survivor's Tale II: And Here My Troubles Began. New York, Pantheon.

Spiegelman, Art (1994). The Complete Maus: A Survivor's Tale. New York, Voyager.

Töpffer, Rodolphe (1994). L'invention de la bande dessinée: textes réunis et présentés par Thierry Groensteen et Benoît Peeters. Paris, Hermann.

Torres, Daniel (1984-5). "Triton" (serialization). Heavy Metal, 91 (October) to 95 (February).

Varnedoe, Kirk and Adam Gopnik (1990). High & Low: Modern Art and Popular Culture. New York, Museum of Modern Art.

Wells, Paul (1998). Understanding Animation. London, Routledge.

Williams, Raymond (1983). Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. London, Flamingo/Fontana.

Wollen, Peter (1998). Signs and Meaning in the Cinema. London, British Film Institute.

The opening to John Berger’s most famous written work, the 1972 book Ways of Seeing, offered not just an idea but also an invitation to see and know the world differently: “The relation between what we see and what we know is never settled,” he wrote.

Berger, who died on January 2 at the age of 90, has had a profound influence on the popular understanding of art and the visual image. He was also a vibrant example of the public intellectual, using his position to speak out against social injustices and to lend his support to artists and activists across the world.

Berger’s approach to art came most directly into the public eye in four-part BBC TV series, Ways of Seeing in 1972, produced by Mike Dibb and which preceded the book. Yet his style of blending Marxist sensibility and art theory with attention to small gestures, scenes and personal stories developed much earlier, in essays for the independent, weekly magazine New Stateman (between 1951 and 1961) and also in his first novel A Painter of Our Time, published in 1958.

The BBC programmes brought to life and democratised scholarly ideas and texts through dramatic, often witty, visual techniques that raised searching questions about how images – from European oil painting to photography and modern advertising – inform and seep into everyday life and help constitute its inequities. What do we see? How are we seen? Might we see differently?

“Berger’s theoretical legacy”, the Indian academic Rashmi Doraiswamy wrote recently, “is in situating the look in the context of political otherness”. Berger’s idea that looking is a political act, perhaps even a historically constructed process – such that where and when we see something will affect what we see – comes across most powerfully in the second episode of Ways of Seeing – which focused on the male gaze.

Here Berger showed the continuities between post-Renaissance European paintings of women and imagery from latter-day posters and girly magazines, by juxtaposing the different images – showing how they similarly rendered women as objects. Berger argued that this continuity constrained how certain forms of femininity are understood, and therefore the terms on which women are able to live their lives. He identified a splitting of the European woman’s consciousness, in which she:

has to survey everything she is and everything she does because how she appears to others, and ultimately how she appears to men, is of crucial importance for what is normally thought of as the success of her life.

How we see

Historical context, scale, and how we see were recurring themes in Berger’s writing, films, performance and in his collaborative photographic essays with Jean Mohr, Anne Michaels, Tereza Stehliková and others.

Berger’s essays and books on the photograph worry at the political ambiguity of meaning in an image. He taught us that photographs always need language, and require a narrative of some sort, to make sense.

He also took care to differentiate how our reaction to photographs of loved ones depends on our relationship to the person portrayed. In A Seventh Man, a collaborative book with Jean Mohr on Turkish migrant workers to Germany in the 1970s, he put it simply:

A photograph of a boy in the rain, a boy unknown to you or me. Seen in the darkroom when making the print or seen in this book when reading it, the image conjures up the vivid presence of the unknown boy. To his father it would define the boy’s absence.

Under the skin

Because he had been a painter, Berger was always a visual thinker and writer. In conversation with the novelist Michael Ondaatje he remarked that the capabilities of cinematographic editing had influenced his writing. He identified cinema’s ability to move from expansive vistas to close-up shots as that to which he most related and aspired.

Certainly Berger’s work is infused with a sensitivity to how long views – the narratives of history – come alive only with the addition of “close-up” stories of human relationships, that retell the narrative but from a different angle. For instance, writing about Frida Kahlo’s compulsion to paint on smooth skin-like surfaces, Berger suggested that it was Kahlo’s pain and disability (she had spina bifida and had gone through treatments following a bad road accident) that “made her aware of the skin of everything alive —- trees, fruit, water, birds, and naturally, other women and men”.

The character in Ondaatje’s novel, In the Skin of a Lion, to whom he gave the name Caravaggio, was partly inspired by Berger’s essay on the painter. In that essay, Berger wrote of a feeling of “complicity” with the Renaissance Italian artist Caravaggio, the “painter of life” who does not “depict the world for others: his vision is one that he shares with it”.

Berger’s writerly inclinations and sensitivities seem to echo something of the “overall intensity, the lack of proper distance” for which Caravaggio was so criticised – and which Berger so admired. This intensity was not a simple theatricality, nor a search for something truer to life, but a philosophical stance springing from his pursuit of equality. He gave us permission to dwell on those aspects of our research or our lives that capture us intensely, and to trust that sensitivity. His was an affirmative politics in this sense. It started with a trust in one’s intuitions, along with the imperative to open these up to explore ourselves as situated within wider social and historical processes.

Reflecting on his written work, Berger wrote in the recent Penguin collection Confabulations:

What has prompted me to write over the years is the hunch that something needs to be told and that, if I don’t try to tell it, it risks not being told.

He knew very well that writing has its limitations. By itself, writing cannot rebalance the inequities of the present or establish new ways of seeing. Yet he wrote with hope. He showed us in his work and – by example – other possibilities for living a life that was committed to criticising inequality, while celebrating the beauty in the world, giving attention to its colour, rhythm and joyous surprises. We remain endowed and indebted to him.

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